Saturday, January 26, 2008


We are aware of the "pseudo"' salafis( wahabis) fabricating Islamic books and distriuting it freely to spread their evil Aqidah ( BELIEF) .

We all know that in Islam a woman has a slighty different postures while performing SALAH ( prayer). All these are based on authentic hadith, but the wahabis insist that a woman has same body postures just like a muslim man while performing salah.

A very detail article was posted on this topic in 2007. One should read that to see the truth.Please check this blog under 2007 artciles.

Here is yet another fabrication done by Sheikh Albani and Blindly followed by Wahabis.

This fabrication was pointed by bro sunni muslim.

The Salafis are known to have distorted certain texts, either in translation or the Arabic itself.

One that I found is in Al-Albani's Sifatu Salatin Nabi.

In the book he declares that women should pray like men for the generality of the hadith صلوا كما رأيتموني أصلي (pray as you have seen me pray) and he goes on to claim that this was the view of Ibrahim An-Nakha'i. He says:

وهو قول إبراهيم النخعي قال :
( تفعل المرأة في الصلاة كما يفعل الرجل )
أخرجه ابن أبي شيبة ( 1 / 75 / 2 ) بسند صحيح عنه

"This is the view of Ibrahim An-Nakha'i who said:

تفعل المرأة في الصلاة كما يفعل الرجل

'A woman does in prayer as does a man'

It has been transmitted by Ibn Abi Shaybah with an authentic chain." (Sifatu Salatin Nabi)

This quote of Al-Albani is still available on Salafi sites, such as

(It can also be found in English, for example, at

The actual hadith, as found in Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaybah (at harh=0 ) is:

تقعد المرأة في الصلاة كما يقعد الرجل

"A woman sits in prayer as sits a man"

This is a clear a distortion of the athar.

As a side note, this athar of An-Nakha'i actually means it is only permissible for a woman to sit in the same posture of a man.

In fact another narration shows Ibrahim An-Nakha'i said that a woman should sit to her side (which Al-Albani conveniently overlooked):

إبْرَاهِيمَ قَالَ : تَجْلِسُ الْمَرْأَةُ مِنْ جَانِبٍ فِي الصَّلَاةِ

Ibrahim said "A woman sits to the side in prayer." (Musannaf, number 10 in the above link)

All About Ibn Baz !

Ibn Baz, A Concise Guide to

Another Primary Innovator in Islam
by GF Haddad

[With a list of his labelling muslims]

[With a list of his tampering of the scholarly heritage]

[How sunni scholars have always defined innovation (bid`a) in religion]

`Abd al-`Aziz ibn `Abd Allah Ibn Baz, the late (d. 1999) nescient mufti of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, government scholar par excellence, and major innovator whose influence on spreading deviant beliefs is incalculable. The present crippling of Islam and Muslims took place under his leadership and as a direct result of his policies as listed by Sayyid Yusuf al-Rifa`i in his Nasiha li Ikhwanina `Ulama' Najd ("Advice to Our Brothers the Scholars of Najd" ):
* Calling the Muslims "Pagans"
* Calling the Muslims "Apostates"
* Calling the Muslims "Deviants"
* Calling the Muslims "Innovators"
* Monopolozing Teaching in Hijaz
* Falsifying Our Scholarly Heritage (see below)
* Libeling Ulema Who Disagreed with Wahhabi Doctrine
* Imposting the Style of Najd in Adhân
* Shutting the Mosque in Madina at Night
* Posting Hoodlums at the Noble Grave
* Obstructing and Scolding Women in Madina
* Blocking Women from Visiting Baqi`
* Police Interrogation Centers
* Razing of the Mosque of Abu Bakr -riDiaLLahu 'anhu -
* Razing of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari's House
* Destroying Historical Makka and Madina but Preserving Khaybar
* Replacing Khadija's House with Latrines
* Outlawing Nasiha to Rulers
* Interdiction of Dala'il al-Khayrat and other books
* Forbidding Mawlid Gatherings
* Etc.

As former overall president of the Directorships of Scholarly Research, Iftâ', Da`wa, and Irshâd, Ibn Baz is on record for issuing a fatwa declaring as unislamic the Palestinian people's uprising against the Jewish State of Israel, whereas he never condemned the practices, in his own country, of gambling, horse-racing, and usury. In the late sixties he declared any and all forms of cooperation with the kuffâr prohibited and cast a judgment of apostasy on `Abd al-Nasir for employing a civilian force of a few hundred Russian engineers to build the Aswan dam. In the early nineties he again made it halâl for kufr forces to come, under their flag and sovereignty, in hundred of thousands, to occupy Muslim lands and destroy Iraq, because of "necessity." There was also no problem for them to stay after the "necessity" was over.

In his infamous al-Adilla al-Naqliyya wa al-Hissiyya `ala Jarayan al-Shamsi wa Sukuni al-Ard ("The Transmitted and Sensory Proofs of the Rotation of the Sun and Stillness of the Earth"), he asserted that the earth was flat and disk-like and that the sun revolved around it.

Like all the anthropomorphists of his School, Ibn Baz added modifiers to the Divine Attributes, asserting, for example, that Allah Most High and Exalted "istawâ `alâ al-`arsh haqqan" - variously translated as "He established Himself over the Throne in person" or "actually" or "literally" - haqqan being an innovated addition which violates the practice of the true Salaf consisting in asserting the Divine Attributes bilâ kayf - without "how" - any modifier being by definition a modality. What is worse, of course, is that such an innovated addition is an avenue to anthropomorphism.

In his footnote to article 38 of Imam al-Tahawi's `Aqida ("He is beyond having limits placed on Him, or being restricted, or having parts or limbs. Nor is He contained by the six directions as all created entities are"), he asserts, "Allah is beyond limits that we know but has limits He knows." This is, like haqqan, a true innovation of misguidance and innovated phrase as stated by al-Dhahabi and others, utterly unsupported by the Qur'an, the Sunna, and the Consensus, and violating the practice of the true Salaf who refrained from indulging in speculations of modality whenever they mentioned the Divine Attributes. (This footnote also appears in Shu`ayb Hassan's translation in English, which also contains other major doctrinal errors.)

Ibn Baz's Najdi friends commit the same ugly innovation: `Abd Allah al-Hashidi in his edition of al-Bayhaqi's al-Asma' wa al-Sifat - written in rebuttal of al-Kawthari's landmark edition - states: "As for us we affirm a form (sûra) for Allah unlike forms," while al-Albani in his Sharh approvingly quotes Muhammad ibn Mani`'s remonstration of Imam al-Tahawi for this particular article and his pretense that the Imam, perhaps, did not write it in the first place: "The Imam and author was in no need at all for these invented, wrongly suggestive words, and if someone were to say that they are interpolated and not his own words, I would not think it improbable, so as to keep a good opinion of him"!1

Ibn Baz also suggests corporal limbs for Allah Most High and Exalted in his statement in Taliqat Hamma `ala ma Katabahu al-Shaykh Muhammad `Ali al-Sabuni fi Sifat Allah ("Important Comments on What Shaykh al-Sabuni Wrote Concerning the Divine Attributes") that "To declare Allah transcendent beyond possessing body (al-jism), pupils (al-hadaqa), auditory meatus (al-simâkh), tongue (al-lisân), and larynx (al-hanjara) is not the position of Ahl al-Sunna but rather that of the scholars of condemned kalâm and their contrivance."2

By his phrase "the scholars of condemned kalâm" he disparages Ibn Khafif, Ibn `Abd al-Salam, Ibn al-Juwayni, Ibn Hibban, Ibn `Arabi, al-Ghazzali, al-Razi, al-Qadi `Iyad, al-Maziri, al-Nawawi, al-Pazdawi, al-Bayhaqi, al-Qurtubi, al-Khatib, Ibn al-Jawzi, Ibn Daqiq al-`Id, Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani, Shah Wali Allah, the entire Ash`ari and Maturidi Schools and, lately, al-Sabuni, all of whom asserted transcendence in similar terms. As Ibn Hajar stated in Fath al-Bari: "The elite of the mutakallimûn said: `He knows not Allah, who attributes to Him resemblance to His creation, or attributes a hand to Him, or a son."3 Contrary to this the doctrine of the Literalists consists in attributing an actual hand to the Creator. But Ibn Baz in his notes on Fath al-Bari charges al-Qadi `Iyad and Ibn Hajar with abandoning the way of Ahl al-Sunna for stating that the Hand of Allah does not pertain to a bodily appendage.4 This is similar to the pretext of the anthropomorphist who said: "We expelled Ibn Hibban from Sijistan for his lack of Religion: he used to say that Allah is not limited!"5

Ibn Baz's acolyte Muhammad Zinu mumbles a similar claim of corporeality in his book Tanbihat Hamma `ala Kitab Safwat al-Tafasir ("Important Cautions Regarding [al-Sabuni's three volume Qur'anic commentary] `The Quintessence of Commentaries'"). Al-Sabuni blasted both of them in his 1988 rebuttal, Kashf al-Iftira'at fi Risalat Tanbihat Hawla Safwat al-Tafasir ("Exposing the Lies of the Epistle `Cautions'").

Ibn Baz explicitly attributes a geographical direction to Allah Most High and Exalted, and affirms that such was the belief of "the Companions and those who followed them in excellence - they assert a direction for Allah, and that is the direction of height, believing that the Exalted is above the Throne."6

In his tract translated into English as Authentic Islamic Aqeedah and What Opposes It (p. 16), Ibn Baz calls those who visit the graves of saints "unbelievers" who commit what he calls kufr al-rubûbiyya. This fatwa compounds three innovations: (1) the dreadful sin of indiscriminately declaring millions of Muslims kâfir without the proofs and due process required by the purified Shari`a: (2) the blind, wholesale dismissal of the numerous orders of the Prophet in the authentic Sunna to visit the graves for they are reminders of the hereafter; (3) the branding of Muslims with an innovated classification of disbelief he calls kufr al-rubûbiyya.

The weakness of Ibn Baz's doctrinal positions can be inferred from the very title of one of his tracts purportedly designed to champion true doctrine: Iqamat al-Barahin `ala Hukmi man Istaghatha bi Ghayr Allah ("Establishing the Patent Proofs for the Judgment on Whoever Calls for Help Other than Allah"). For the licitness of istighâtha or calling for help of a creature QUALIFIED TO HELP, is patently established in the Qur'an and Sunna, as shown by the verse {And his countryman sought his help (istaghâthahu) against his enemy} (28:15) and al-Bukhari's narration of the Prophet from Ibn `Umar - Allah be well-pleased with him - already quoted: "Truly the sun shall draw so near on the Day of Resurrection that sweat shall reach to the mid-ear, whereupon they shall ask (istaghâthû) help from Adam - upon him peace -, then from Musa - upon him peace -, then from Muhammad - Allah bless and greet him - who will intercede." Furthermore, Ibn Baz directly contradicts Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab's words in Majmu`at al-Tawhid (p. 232): "We do not deny nor reject the invocation of help from the creature [as distinct >from the Creator] INSOFAR AS THE CREATED CAN HELP, as Allah Most High said in the story of Musa - upon him peace -: {And his countryman sought his help against his enemy}."

An inveterate deprecator of the Prophet and principal enemy of the Sufis, in one of his fatwas he asserts, "Among other things, the Messenger of Allah , after his death, never appears in a vision to a wakeful person. He of the ignorant Sufis who claims that he sees, while vigilant, the vision of the Prophet , or that that vision attends the Mawlids or the like, is guilty of the foulest error, and exceedingly deluded... the dead never rise out of their graves in this world save on the Day of Judgement."

The above is a claim to know in their entirety: (a) the unseen, (b) the wherewithal of the Prophet in Barzakh, and (c) the states of the servants of Allah Most High; in addition to an impious reference to the Prophet as "the dead"! Surely, it is ibn Baz who is dead while the Prophet - Allah bless and greet him -, as stated by Shaykh Muhammad ibn `Alawi in Manhaj al-Salaf, "is alive with a complete isthmus-life (hayât barzakhiyya) which is greater and better and more perfect than worldly life - indeed, higher, dearer, sweeter, more perfect, and more beneficial than worldly life."

It is also related from one of the great Sufi shaykhs, Shaykh Abu al-Hasan al-Shadhili - may Allah have mercy upon him - who, unlike Ibn Baz, was only physically blind, whom the hadith master Ibn al-Mulaqqin mentioned in his Tabaqat al-Awliya, and concerning whom Ibn Daqiq al-`Id said: "I never saw anyone more knowledgeable of Allah," that he said: "If I ceased to see the Prophet for one moment, I would no longer consider myself a Muslim." His teacher Abu al-`Abbas al-Mursi said the same. The Ghawth `Abd al-`Aziz al-Dabbagh said something similar, as reported from him by his student Ahmad ibn al-Mubarak in al-Ibriz. Assuredly, Shaykh Abd al-Aziz shall have to answer for his calumny of these Sufis among many others on the Day of Judgment, in addition to having issued legal judgments and spoken of the Prophet - Allah bless and greet him - without knowledge.

As for attending Mawlid, "a vision" does not attend or do anything, but the spirits of the believers who passed away, together with the angels and the believing jinn, are certainly related to attend the gatherings of the pious all over the earth. Ibn al-Kharrat in al-`Aqiba, Ibn al-Qayyim in al-Ruh, al-Qurtubi in al-Tadhkira, Ibn Abi al-Dunya in al-Qubur, al-Suyuti in Sharh al-Sudur, Ibn Rajab in Ahwal al-Qubur, and others relate from many of the Salaf - including Imam Malik in al-Muwatta' - that the spirits of the believers in Barzakh are free to come and go anywhere they please. This is all the more possible for our Prophet - Allah bless and greet him - as we celebrate Mawlid specifically to remember him and invoke blessings upon him.

Ibn Baz passed a fatwa that "It is not permissible to celebrate the birthday of the Prophet , in fact, it must be stopped, as it is an innovation in the religion." His sole proof for this declaring an act illicit and an innovation in Islam is that it did not take place in the early centuries of Islam, whereas al-Shafi`i and the Imams and scholars of the principles of jurisprudence defined innovation in the Religion as "that which was not practiced before AND contravenes the Qur'an and Sunna." It is noteworthy that the heads of the "Salafi" movement and those of their offshoots who propagate their views are always careful, through ignorance and/or duplicity, to omit this second, indispensable pre-condition in their definition of bid`a: Deobandis, Tablighis, Tahriris, Muhajiris, Jama`is, Ikhwanis, ICNA, ISNA, IANA, MAYA, JIMAS, WAMY, QSS, SAS, IIIE, and other Wahhabis. Furthermore, the majority of the scholars of Ahl al-Sunna - and Allah knows best - concur either outloud or tacitly on the licit character of the celebration of the Mawlid provided the usual etiquette of Islam in public gatherings is kept. Lastly, the Hanbali school in its entirety never declared forbidden the celebration of the Mawlid and even Ibn Taymiyya stated that one who celebrates it with sincere intentions will be rewarded!7

Ibn Baz revived the innovation and invalid fatwa of Ibn Taymiyya to the effect that it is forbidden to travel with the intention of visiting the Prophet in his notes on Ibn Hajar's Fath al-Bari, book of Fadl al-Salat fi Makka wal-Madina, where Ibn Hajar comments on Ibn Taymiyya's prohibition of travel for Ziyara: "Ibn Taymiyya said: `This kind of trip - traveling to visit the grave of the Prophet - Allah bless and greet him - is a disobedience, and salât must not be shortened during it.' This is one of the ugliest matters reported from Ibn Taymiyya." To which Ibn Baz reacts in a footnote: "It is not ugly, and Ibn Taymiyya was right." Indeed, Ibn Hajar's teacher, Zayn al-Din al-`Iraqi, rightly called it in his Tarh al-Tathrib (6:43) "a strange and ugly saying."

Bin Baz also reduplicates word for word and without the least critical analysis or original understanding of the evidence the pretense of Ibn Taymiyya whereby "The hadiths that concern the desirability of visiting the grave of the Prophet are all weak, indeed forged." By the grace of Allah Most High this pseudo-bold and fashionable claim - among "Salafis" - has been laid to its final resting-ground by Shaykh Mahmud Mamduh's superb documentation work titled Raf` al-Minara fi Takhrij Ahadith al-Tawassul wa al-Ziyara ("Raising the Lighthouse: Documentation of the Narrations Pertaining to Using an Intermediary and Visitation").

Another astonishing deviation of Ibn Baz in his remarks on Fath al-Bari is his characterizing the visit of the Companion Bilal ibn al-Harth - Allah be well-pleased with him - to the grave of the Prophet - Allah bless and greet him - and his tawassul for rain there as "aberrant" (munkar) and "an avenue to polytheism" (wasîla ilâ al-shirk)."8

One of his innovations in usûl is his public declaration - in the Saudi periodical al-Majalla - that he does not adhere to the Hanbali Madhhab "but only to the Qur'an and Sunna," whereas Ibn Taymiyya said himself asserted in Mukhtasar al-Fatawa al-Misriyya that the truth is not found, in the whole Shari`a, outside the four Schools. Nor have any two Sunni Ulema on the face of the earth agreed on the qualification of Ibn Baz as an absolute Mujtahid capable of extracting his own proofs and School from the primary evidences of the Law. On the contrary, his fiqh is superficial compared to his subordinate Ibn `Uthaymin, his natural bent for taqlîd is evident, his blunders numerous, and his innovations countless.

Among the other innovations of Ibn Baz in doctrine, he tried to rectify whatever did not please him in Fath al-Bari by the Imam and hadith master Ibn Hajar al-`Asqalani with interpersed remarks that do not qualify as commentary but as an attempt to substitute Ibn Hajar's Ash`ari Sunni doctrine with anthropomorphism as the Islamic creed.9

Under his leadership, Ibn Taymiyya's Majmu`a al-Fatawa al-Kubra received a new edition from which the 10th volume - on tasawwuf - was suppressed. Similar examples of unreliable editorship and blatant tampering of the scholarly heritage abound at the hands of Wahhabis:

1- In the book of al-Adhkar by Imam Muhyi al-Din al-Nawawi as published by Dar al-Huda in al-Riyad in 1409/1989 and edited by `Abd al-Qadir al-Arna'ut of Damascus, page 295, the chapter-title, "Section on Visiting the Grave of the Messenger " was substituted with the title, "Section on Visiting the Mosque of the Messenger of Allah " together with the suppression of several lines from the beginning of the section and its end, and the suppression of al-`Utbi's famous story of intercession which Imam al-Nawawi had mentioned in full.10 When al-Arna'ut was asked about it, he replied that the Ryad agents were the ones who had changed and tampered with the text. A facsimile of his own hand-written statement to that effect was printed in full in Shaykh Mahmud Mamduh's Raf` al-Minara (p. 72-75).

2- Suppression of al-Sawi's (d. 1241/1825) words on modern-time Kharijis in his supercommentary on Tafsir al-Jalalayn titled Hashiya `ala Tafsir al-Jalalayn (v. 58:18-19), "namely, a sect in the Hijaz named Wahhabis" from all new editions beginning from the Eighties.11

3- Zuhayr al-Shawish's suppression of the word "substitute-saints" (al-abdâl) from his al-Maktab al-Islami (3rd) edition of Ibn Taymiyya's `Aqida Wasitiyya in the following passage: "The true adherents of Islam in its pristine purity are Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama`a. In their ranks are found the truthful saints (al-siddîqûn), the martyrs, and the righteous. Among them are the great men of guidance and illumination, of recorded integrity and celebrated virtue. And among them are the substitute-saints (al-abdâl) - the Imams - concerning whose guidance and knowledge the Muslims are in full accord. These are the Victorious Group..." as found in the Cairo Salafiyya edition (p. 36) and the Majmu`a al-Rasa'il al-Kubra (3:159).

4- Suppression of the chapter that concerns the Friends of Allah (al-awliyâ'), Substitute-Saints (al-abdâl), and the Righteous (al-sâlihîn) >from Ibn `Abidin's Epistles.12

5- Removal of Abu Hayyan's denunciation of Ibn Taymiyya as an anthropomorphist from his two Tafsirs, al-Bahr al-Muhit and al-Nahr al-Madd min al-Bahr (passage on Ayat al-Kursi).

6- Interpolation of the phrase bidhâtihi ("in person") into al-Gilani's mention of Allah Most High establishing Himself over the Throne as well as the takfîr of Imam Abu Hanifa in his classic al-Ghunya.

7- Interpolations among the same lines as well as the takfîr of Imam Abu Hanifa in al-Ash`ari's al-Ibana.

8- Suppressions and additions along anthropomorphist lines in al-Nawawi's Sharh Sahih Muslim from as early as Ibn al-Subki's time.

9- Anthropomorphist additions to al-Alusi's Ruh al-Ma`ani transmitted by his "Salafi" son Nu`man as shown by a comparison with its autograph manuscript.

10- Commissioning Muhammad Muhsin Khan and Muhammad Taqi al-Din al-Hilali with English translations of the motherbooks of Islam such as the Qur'an, al-Bukhari's Sahih, al-Zabidi's al-Tajrid al-Sarih, al-Naysaburi's al-Lu'lu' wa al-Marjan etc. when Khan was only trained as a chest doctor while the late Moroccan-born Hilali had no more than a poor mastery of the English language.13 Hence their translations are clumsy, inelegant, filled with gaps and approximations, and further corrupted by deliberate manipulations of meaning along doctrinal lines as shown by the following example in their Sahih al-Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 76, Number 549: "Narrated Ibn `Abbas: `The Prophet said, "The people were displayed in front of me and I saw one prophet passing by with a large group of his followers, and another prophet passing by with only a small group of people, and another prophet passing by with only ten (persons), and another prophet passing by with only five (persons), and another prophet passed by alone. And then I looked and saw a large multitude of people, so I asked Gibril, "Are these people my followers?' He said, `No, but look towards the horizon.' I looked and saw a very large multitude of people. Gibril said. `Those are your followers, and those are seventy thousand (persons) in front of them who will neither have any reckoning of their accounts nor will receive any punishment.' I asked, `Why?' He said, `For they used not to treat themselves with branding (cauterization) NOR WITH RUQYA (GET ONESELF TREATED BY THE RECITATION OF SOME VERSES OF THE QUR'AN) and not to see evil omen in things, and they used to put their trust (only) in their Lord." On hearing that, `Ukasha bin Mihsan got up and said (to the Prophet), "Invoke Allah to make me one of them." The Prophet said, "O Allah, make him one of them." Then another man got up and said (to the Prophet), "Invoke Allah to make me one of them." The Prophet said, `Ukasha has preceded you."'"

As demonstrated in the text of the Encyclopedia of Islamic Doctrine (6:137-149) on ta'wîz, there is a Jahili ruqyâ, and there is a Sunni ruqyâ. The former is made with other than what is allowed in the Religion, such as amulets, talismans, spells, incantations, charms, magic and the like: and that is what the Prophet meant in the above hadith. But the translator Khan mischaracterized it, in his parenthetical gloss, as the Sunna ruqyâ consisting in using some verses of the Qur'an or permitted du'â for treatment! Thus he suggests, in his manipulation, exactly the reverse of what the Prophet - Allah bless and greet him - said and practiced, and the reverse of what the Companions said and practiced both in the time of the Prophet - Allah bless and greet him - and after his time. One well-known probative example of the Sunna ruqyâ is the use of the Fatiha by one of the Companions to heal a scorpion-bite - and the Prophet approved of it - as narrated by al-Bukhari elsewhere in his Sahih.14

11- The 1999 translation of al-Nawawi's Riyad al-Salihin published by Darussalam publications out of Riyad makes a similar interpolation distorting the meaning of the words of the Prophet - Allah bless and greet him -: "They are those who do not make RUQYAH (BLOWING OVER THEMSELVES AFTER RECITING THE QUR'AN OR SOME PRAYERS AND SUPPLICATIONS THE PROPHET - Allah bless and greet him - used to say)."15 Observe their equating something the Prophet used to do with an act that those who enter Paradise do not do. The same book calls al-Albani "the leading authority in the science of hadith" (p. 88), declares that "in case of breach of ablution, the wiping over the socks is sufficient, and there is no need for washing the feet" (p. 31), that "ours should not be the belief that the dead do hear and reply [our greeting]" (p. 515), and that expressing the intention (niyya) verbally before salât "is a Bid`ah (innovation in religion) because no proof of it is found in Sharî`ah" (p. 14)!

12- Other manipulations of meaning along anthropomorphist lines and dilly-dallying can be seen in Khan-Hilali's discrepant, multiple translations of the meanings of the Qur'an into English. An example of this confusion is in the footnote to the verse of the Throne (2:255) for the word kursiyyuhu, translated as "His Throne": "Throne: seat."16 In a later edition by the same M.M. Khan and his friend M. Taqi al-Din al-Hilali, the word is left untranslated, giving "His Kursî," with a footnote stating:

"Kursî: literally a footstool or chair, and sometimes wrongly translated as Throne[!]. Ibn Taimiyah said: a) To believe in the Kursî. b) To believe in the `Arsh (Throne) [sic]. It is narrated from Muhammad bin `Abdullâh and from other religious scholars that the Kursî is in front of the `Arsh (Throne) and it is at the level of the Feet. (Fatawa Ibn Taimiyah, Vol. 5, Pages 54, 55)."17

None of the above explanations is authentically related from the Prophet - Allah bless and greet him -, least of all the astonishing mention of "the Feet"18 - and who are "Muhammad bin `Abdullâh" and the "other religious scholars"?! Nor is the call for imitating what "Ibn Taymiyya said to believe" other than a bankrupt innovation. Nor is the translation of kursî as "Throne" wrong when called for in certain cases, as in the narration: "On the Day of Resurrection your Prophet shall be brought and shall be made to sit in front of Allah the Almighty, on His kursî."19 Some of the Salaf, among them al-Hasan al-Basri, even explicitly said that the kursî is the `arsh.20 Furthermore, it is authentically related from Ibn `Abbas that he said: "His kursî is His knowledge (kursiyyuhu `ilmuhu),"21 and this is the explanation preferred by the Imams of the Salaf such as Sufyan al-Thawri, al-Bukhari, al-Tabari, al-Bayhaqi, and others.

13- Other examples of Khan-Hilali's bamboozled translations: "Then he rose over (Istawâ) towards the heaven" (p. 643) as compared to Pickthall's {Then turned He to the heaven when it was smoke} (41:11) and Yusuf `Ali's over-figurative "Moreover He comprehended in His design the sky, and it had been (as) smoke"; "and then He rose over (Istawâ) the Throne (really in a manner that suits His Majesty)" (p. 208) as compared to Pickthall's simple {then mounted He the Throne} (7:54) and `Ali's typical "then He established Himself on the Throne (of authority)"; "Do you feel secure that He, Who is over the heaven (Allâh)" (p. 772) as compared to Pickthall's literal (Have ye taken security from Him Who is in the heaven (fî al-samâ')( (67:16-17) and `Ali's "Do ye feel secure that He Who is in Heaven"; etc.

14- The translation of verse 2:200 states: "So when you have accomplished your Manaasik, remember Allâh as you remember your forefathers or with a far more rememberance" (p. 43)!; etc. Did Ibn Baz, "The Presidency of Islamic Researches, Ifta, Call and Guidance," and the "King Fahd Complex for the Printing of the Holy Qur'an" all think so cheaply of the Book of Allah and so dearly of their own agenda that the basic grammar and syntax of the translation of its meanings into the most heavily spoken language on earth did not deserve to be double-checked by a competent English proofreader before being printed on the best bible paper, sewn-bound, and distributed freely at huge cost?

Ibn Baz did his best to aid and abet the main innovators of our time such as al-Albani, on whom he bestowed the King Faysal Prize "for services rendered to Islam" (!) the year before their respective deaths; al-Albani's student and deputy in Kuwait, `Abd al-Rahman `Abd al-Khaliq the author of the despicable attack on the Friends of Allah which he titled Fada'ih al-Sufiyya ("The Disgraces of the Sufis") and which al-Buti termed an exercise in calumny; Muqbil ibn Hadi al-Wadi`i who asked that the Noble Grave be brought out of the Mosque and the Green Dome destroyed, and roamed the land in Yemen with armed thugs, digging up the graves of the dead with picks and spades; Abu Bakr al-Jaza'iri, Muhammad Zino, `Abd al-Rahman Dimashqiyya, and their ilk...

As Sayyid Yusuf al-Rifa`i said to the Ulema of Najd: "You left none but yourselves as those who are saved, forgetting the Prophet's - Allah bless and greet him - saying: `If anyone says, `The people have perished,' then he has perished the most."22


1 Muhammad ibn Mani` as quoted by al-Albani in the latter's commentary in al-`Aqida al-Tahawiyya, Sharh wa Ta`liq, 2nd ed. (ed. Zuhayr Shawish, Beirut: al-Maktab al-Islami, 1993) p. 46.

2 Tanbihat Hamma (Kuwait: Jam`iyya Ihya' al-Turath al-Islami, p. 22).

3 Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Bari (1959 ed. 3:361 #1425).

4 Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Bari (1959 ed. 3:361 n.; 1989 ed. 3:357 n.)

5 See Ibn al-Subki, Tabaqat al-Shafi`iyya al-Kubra (3:132) and his stand-alone, edited Qa`ida fi al-Jarh wa al-Ta`dil (p. 31-33) [TSK (2:13)].

6 Notes on Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Bari (1989 ed. 3:37-38; 1959 ed. 3:32-33 #1094).

7 A thorough refutation of Ibn Baz's fatwa on Mawlid was issued by the Imam Ahmed Raza Academy in South Africa and published on the Internet.

8 Al-Bayhaqi and others narrate from Malik al-Dar, `Umar's treasurer, that the people suffered a drought during the successorship of `Umar, whereupon a man came to the grave of the Prophet and said: "O Messenger of God, ask for rain for your Community, for verily they have but perished," after which the Prophet - Allah bless and greet him - appeared to him in a dream and told him: "Go to `Umar and give him my greeting, then tell him that they will be watered. Tell him: You must be clever, you must be clever!" The man went and told `Umar. The latter said: "O my Lord, I spare no effort except in what escapes my power!" Ibn Kathir cites it thus from al-Bayhaqi in al-Bidaya wa al-Nihaya (7:92) and says: isnâduhu sahîh; Ibn Abi Shayba cites it in his Musannaf with a sound chain as confirmed by Ibn Hajar who cites the hadith in the 3rd chapter of the book of Istisqa' in Fath al-Bari (1989 ed. 2:629-630) and al-Isaba (3:484), identifying the man who visited and saw the Prophet - Allah bless and greet him - in his dream as the Companion Bilal ibn al-Harth. He counts this hadith as one of the reasons for al-Bukhari's naming of the chapter "The people's request to their leader for rain if they suffer drought."

9 Cf. section, "Dwarves on the Shoulders of Giants" in Shaykh Hisham Kabbani's Encyclopedia of Islamic Doctrine (1:174-177) = Islamic Beliefs and Doctrine (p. 204-208).

10 See:

11 See Reforming Classical Texts - How widespread is tampering of texts by the Salafis.

12 Namely, the epitle titled Ijabat al-Ghawth bi Bayan Hal al-Abdal wa al-Ghawth that can be found in the original edition of Ibn `Abidin's Rasa'il (2:264-284).

13 As revealed to the author by Dr. Muhammad Mustafa al-A`zami who personally knew Hilali. Perhaps Hilali's close friend Dr. Abu al-Hasan al-Nadwi should be credited for these translations instead of him.

14 The correct translation of the above hadith is: The Prophet - Allah bless and greet him - said: The people were displayed in front of me and I saw one Prophet passing by with a large group of his followers, another Prophet passing by with only a small group of people, another Prophet passing by with only ten (persons), another Prophet passing by with only five (persons), and another Prophet passed by alone. And then I looked and saw a large multitude of people (sawâd `azîm), so I asked Gibril: "Are these people my followers?" He said: "No, but look towards the horizon." I looked and saw a very large multitude of people. Gibril said: "Those are your followers, and there are seventy thousand of them in front of them who will neither have any reckoning of their accounts nor will receive any punishment." I asked: "Why?" He said: "They used not to treat themselves with cauterization nor amulets, nor to see auguries and omens in birds, and they relied solely upon their Lord." On hearing this, `Ukkasha ibn Mihsan stood up and said to the Prophet : "Invoke Allah to make me one of them." The Prophet - Allah bless and greet him - said: "O Allah, make him one of them." Then another man stood up and said to the Prophet: "Invoke Allah to make me one of them." The Prophet - Allah bless and greet him - said: `Ukkasha has preceded you with this request."

15 Riyâd-us-Sâliheen, vol. 1, translated by Muhammad Amin ibn Razduq with a commentary by Hafiz Yusuf (p. 94).

16 Footnote #298 in The Holy Qur-an: English Translation of the Meanings and Commentary, Revised and Edited by The Presidency of Islamic Researches, Ifta, Call and Guidance (Madinah: King Fahd Holy Qur-an Printing Complex, 1410 [1990]).

17 The Noble Qur'an: English Translation of the Meanings and Commentary by Muhammad Taqi al-Din al-Hilali and Muhammad Muhsin Khan, Revised and Edited by The Presidency of Islamic Researches, Ifta, Call and Guidance (Madinah: King Fahd Complex for the Printing of the Holy Qur'an, 1417 [1997] (p. 57 n. 1).

18 See al-Bayhaqi, al-Asma' wa al-Sifat (Hashidi ed. 2:196 #758), Ibn al-Jawzi, al-`Ilal (1:22), al-Dhahabi al-Mizan (2:265), Ibn Kathir, Tafsir (1:317), Ibn Hajar, al-Tahdhib (4:274), and al-Ahdab, Zawa'id Tarikh Baghdad (7:37-39 #1383).

19 Narrated mawqûf from `Abd Allah ibn Salam by Ibn Abi `Asim in al-Sunna (p. 351 #786) and al-Tabari in his Tafsir (8:100).

20 Narrated by al-Tabari, Tafsir (3:10).

21 Narrated marfû` from the Prophet by Sufyan al-Thawri with a sound chain according to Ibn Hajar in Fath al-Bari (1959 ed. 8:199) and al-Tabarani in al-Sunna; and mawqûf from Ibn `Abbas by al-Tabari with three sound chains in his Tafsir (3:9-11), al-Mawardi in his Tafsir (1:908), al-Suyuti in al-Durr al-Manthur (1:327), al-Shawkani in Fath al-Qadir (1:245), and others. Al-Tabari chooses it as the most correct explanation: "The external wording of the Qur'an indicates the correctness of the report from Ibn `Abbas that it [the kursî] is His `ilm... and the original sense of al-kursî is al-`ilm." Also narrated in "suspended" form (mu`allaq) by al-Bukhari in his Sahih from Sa`id ibn Jubayr (Book of Tafsir, chapter on the saying of Allah Most High: {And if you go in fear, then (pray) standing or on horseback} (2:239). Its chains are documented by Ibn Hajar in Taghliq al-Ta`liq (2/4:185-186) where he shows that Sufyan al-Thawri, `Abd al-Rahman ibn Mahdi, and Waki` narrated it marfû` from the Prophet , although in the Fath he declares the mawqûf version from Ibn `Abbas more likely.

22 Narrated from Abu Hurayra by Malik, Ahmad, Muslim, al-Bukhari in al-Adab al-Mufrad, and Abu Dawud.

Wal-`Aqibatu lil-Muttaqin

Is Taweez ( AMULET) allowed in Islam?

Please read the complete article .

We also have Fatwa od Sheikh Ibn Taymiah on this issue , for our wahabi friends.

Taweez ( AMULETS)

The defenition of a ta'wiz is simply a written du'a from the Qur'an or ahadith, and is for the one who cannot read or has not memorized that particular du'a. It is written on a piece of paper and is worn around the neck.

We, the Ahl as-Sunna, believe that to wear a ta'wiz around the neck is permissible if the du'a' contained in it is written from the Qur'an or ahadith. Prophet Muhammad (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) used to recite du'a' and then blow onto the sick person. The Companions of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) also did this and they wrote the du'a' on a piece of paper and placed it around the neck of a person if they could not read it. Of course, the du'a's from the Qur'an and ahadith have the power to heal the sick. Some people say that if you wear the ta'wiz you are commiting shirk, but we shall prove, with the help of Allah, that it is permissible to wear a ta'wiz.

The Qur'an Has the Power of Healing

Allah Most High says in the Qur'an:

"...We send down in Qur'an that which is a healing and a mercy to the believers..."

[Sura Banu Isra'il, verse 82]

Qadi Shawkani writes, "If the Qur'an's du'a's are recited and blown on the sick, they will be cured. When the non-believers recite the Qur'an, their blasphemic disease will be cured" [Tafsir Fath al-Qadir, under Sura Bani Isra'il, verse 82]

Proof of Wearing the ta'wiz
Hafiz Ibn Kathir and Qadi Shawkani write:

"Amr ibn Shu'aib (may Allah be pleased with him) said that 'Rasulu'llah(may Allah bless him and grant him peace) taught my father and grandfather a du'a which we would read before going to sleep, to protect us from fear and anguish.We told our elder children to recite this du'a before going to sleep as well.But for those children who were not yet literate, we would write it and then put it around their necks"

[Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal vol.2; Abu Dawud, in 'Chapter of Medicine'; Tafsir Ibn Kathir, under Sura al-Mu'minun, verse 97; and Qadi Shawkani, Fath al-Qadir, under the same verse]

It is Permissible to Read Du'a and Blow Upon the Sick

Imam al-Bukhari and Imam Muslim write:

"When a person who was sick or in some distress they would go to the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) who would then place his hand on the area of pain and recite a du'a' and then blow onto him"

[Bukhari; Muslim, Chapter of Tibb]

Imam Muslim writes:

"When the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) was ill for the last time, Angel Jibril (peace be upon him) came and recited du'a' and blew on to the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace)"

[Muslim, Chapter of Tibb]

Imam Muslim writes:

" 'A'isha (may Allah be pleased with her) relates that when the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) was ill for the last time, she recited Sura al-Falaq and Sura an-Nas and then blew on to the Prophet's (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) hands. The Prophet then blew this onto his own face and body because his hands had more blessing then 'A'isha's (may Allah be pleased with her)"

[Muslim, Chapter of Tibb]

From the above narrations, it proves that to blow after reciting du'a's onto the sick is Sunna and the more pious the person is, the more healing power he has because he is blessed more than the less pious.

Hafiz Ibn Taymiyya writes:

"It is permissible to [to recite du'a's and then] blow upon the sick in Islam, but the words must be from the Qur'an or ahadith. If the words are not, then it is not permissible"

[Ibn Taymiyya, At-Tawassul, Chapter on Blowing onto the Sick]

Q) Some people ask, 'How is it allowed to blow dua's onto the sick when some ahadith say this is forbidden?'

A) Allama Sa'idi has written the answer to this question in great detail; he has also included the opinion of all the other great scholars, and we will present this here.

Allama Sa'idi writes:

"Imam an-Nawawi in Sharh Muslim states: 'There are two types of ahadith concerning blowing. [reciting a du'a and then blowing onto a person]. One of the types is transmitted in Bukhari: 'There will be people who will enter Paradise without any questioning, who have never been blown upon.' Imam Muslim has also recorded a hadith in support of those who do not ask to be blown upon. Imam Bukhari in the chapter on Tibb [Medicine] has written du'as that our Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) recited when doing damm [reciting a du'a and then blowing onto a person]. Imam Muslim states in 'The Chapter on Virtues of the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace)' that: "When our Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace) was ill, the Angel Jibril came to him and performed the blowing." The above types of ahadith apparently seem to contradict each other but in reality there is no contradiction.

"The former type of hadith refers to the prohibition of having read something that is not from the Qur'an and Sunna [i.e.something that has pictures, diagrams or words not from the Qur'an or Sunna] and then blow upon someone. The latter types of ahadith which permit damm refer to those kalimat [words or verses] which have been taught by the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace)"

[Allama Sa'idi, Sharh Sahih Muslim, Chapter of Tibb]

In the same way as above there are two types of ahadith concerning ta'wiz. There are many narrations that forbid the use of ta'wiz and also many permitting their use.

Imam al-Qurtubi wrote in detail about both types of ahadith concerning ta'wiz:

"The ta'wiz that are forbidden are those ta'wiz from the Time of Ignorance - those which are satanic and contain an element of shirk [mantar, voodoo and magic, etc.]. The ta'wiz, which are permitted are those written with du'as evidently from Qur'an and ahadith only"

[al-Qurtubi, at-Tadhkirat, chapter on 'Ta'wiz']

Here are the narrations which show the permission for one to wear a ta'wiz around one's neck:

Allama Alusi al-Hanafi, in his Tafsir of the Qur'an, writes:

"According to Imam Malik 'It is permitted to put around the neck the ta'wiz written with the name of Allah.' Imam Baqir also stated that it is permitted to put such a ta'wiz around the neck of a child"

[Ruh al-Mani, chapter 15, under Sura al-Mu'minun, verse 97]

Allama Shami al-Hanafi writes:

"It is permitted to write a ta'wiz and put it around the neck... It would be better if a person recites the du'as taught by the Prophet (may Allah bless him and grant him peace). But if a person cannot read or is too young to recite then it is permitted for that person to put it around the neck"

[Rad al-Mukhtar, chapter on 'Qira'at'; Sa'idi, Sharh Sahih Muslim, Chapter on Tibb]

To conclude, it can be said that those verses that oppose the Qur'an, Shari'a, or the Sunna are forbidden to read and also forbidden to put around the neck.But as for the du'as and verses from the Qur'an and Sunna it is permitted to be written and put around the neck of a small child, illiterate or a sick person.

Imam Ibn Taymiyya writes in his Fatawa: (ta'wizes).

In the name of Allah, Most Compassionate, Most Merciful,
Hanging or wearing of amulets (ta’wiz) is normally permissible for protection or healing provided certain conditions are met:

1) That they consist of the names of Allah Almighty or his attributes;

2) That they are in Arabic;

3) That they do not consist of anything that is disbelief (kufr);

4) The user does not believe the words have any affect in themselves, but are empowered to do so by Allah Most High.
It is narrated from Amr ibn Shu’ayb, from his father, from his grandfather (Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-Aas (Allah be pleased with them all), that the Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him & give him peace) used to teach them (the Sahabas) for fearful situations the following words:

“I seek refuge in Allah’s perfect words from His wrath, the evil of his servants, the whispered insinuations of devils, and that they come to me”

Abd Allah ibn Amr used to teach these words to those of his sons who had reached the age of reason, and used to write them and hang them upon those who had not reached the age of reason (narrated by Abu Dawud & Tirmidhi, and Tirmidhi classed it as an authentic narration).

In the Musannaf of Imam Abu Bakr ibn Abi Shayba, the permissibility of hanging Ta’wizes is reported from many of the Companions and early Muslims (Salaf), including: Sa’id ibn al-Musayyab, Ata', Mujahid, Abd Allah ibn Amr, Ibn Sirin, Ubaydullah ibn Abd Allah ibn Umar, and others (Allah be well pleased with them all). [See: al-Musannaf, 5.439]. Due to the above, most of the scholars have declared the using of amulets (ta’wiz) permissible as long as the above conditions are met. It is similar to using medication which is permissible and not against the concept of reliance in Allah (tawakkul) or monotheism Tawhid. However, it is not permissible to regard the Ta’wiz to be effective in it self, just as it is not permissible to regard medicines to be effective in them selves.

As for that which is reported from some, including Ibn Mas’ud (Allah be pleased with him), that hanging Ta’wizes is shirk, this is understood to mean those Ta’wizes that resemble the one’s used in the days of ignorance (jahiliyya), or if used thinking that it is the ta’wiz itself that cures or protects, not Allah, or if it contains impermissible invocations or one’s whose meaning is not known.

Imam Ibn Taymiyya (Allah have mercy on him) writes in his Fatawa:

“It is permissible for an ill or troubled person, that certain verses from the Qur’an are written with pure ink, then it is washed and given to the ill to drink. Ibn Abbas (Allah be pleased with him) is reported to have mentioned a certain Dua that should be written and placed close to the woman who is experiencing hard labour at the time of giving birth.

Sayyiduna Ali (Allah be pleased with him) says: This Dua should be written and tied to the arm of the woman. We have experienced that there is nothing more amazing than this” (Fatawa Ibn Taymiyya, 19/65). Imam Ibn Taymiyya’s student Imam Ibn al-Qayyim also narrates the permissibility of using Ta’wizes from a number of salafs including the great Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal (Allah have mercy on him). Thereafter Ibn al-Qayyim himself quotes various Ta’wizes (Zad al-Ma’ad, 3/180).
In view of the foregoing, it becomes clear that generally using of Ta’wizes is not something that is impermissible or Shirk. However, it is necessary that the above mentioned conditions are met.

Today we have people who are victims of immoderation. There are some people who declare all types of Ta’wizes to be Shirk and Kufr. Others, on the other hand, think Ta’wizes to be everything. Both these types of understandings are incorrect.

Using of Ta’wizes is permissible, but with moderation. Normally it is better to recite the Duas which are prescribed for every problem and illness, and along with that resort to medical treatment. However, if Ta’wizes are used sometimes, then it is permissible.

If there is a fear that a person will begin to think the Ta’wiz to be effective in it self, then he should not be given the Ta’wiz. This will be the decision of the person who is giving the Ta’wiz, and not for us to decide for him.

There are many people who never make Dua and are neglectful of the Shariah injunctions, but always depend on Ta’wizes. For such people, it is better not to give them Ta’wizes, rather to direct them to the straight path.

Once, a sister asked me to mention to her a Dua or write something for her in order to get married to someone she desired, and she also mentioned that her Duas were not being answered. I asked: “Do you cover your self when you emerge out of your home?” no, was the reply. I said: “Do you perform your Salat (Prayers)?” Again, “no” was the reply. I said: “From tomorrow, you make this special Dua after the Fajr Salat, and you carry on performing this for 6 months, and Insha Allah your Dua will be accepted. Also a very Important Ta’wiz is that you recite a certain Dua and blow on your scarf and wear that scarf when emerging out of your home”!

In conclusion, generally it is permissible to use amulets (ta’wizes) in compliance with the conditions mentioned above. However, if there is something that is impermissible, then it will not be allowed

The Hadith " Whoever visits my grave..."

Imām al-Dāraqutunī narrated in his Sunan from Ibn ‘Umar that the Prophet said:

“Whoever visits my grave, my intercession will be guaranteed for him.”

( Man zāra qabrī wajabat lahu shafā‘atī )

al-Daraqutni, al-Dulabi, al-Bayhaqi, Khatib al-Baghdadi, al-`Uqayli, Ibn `Adi, Tabarani, and Ibn Khuzayma in his Sahih, all through various chains going back to Musa ibn Hilal al-`Abdi from `Ubayd Allah Ibn `Umar, both from Nafi`, From Ibn`Umar:

"Whoever visits my grave, my intercession will be guaranteed for him."

Although declaring all the chains of this hadith imperfect (layyina), Dhahabi nevertheless said that they strengthened each other and declared the chain jayyid (good) as narrated, in Mizan al-i`tidal, vol. 4, p. 226: "Huwa salih al-hadith" which means: "He (Musa ibn Hilal) is good in his narrations." That is: the hadith is hasan. Sakhawi confirmed him in the Maqasid al hasana, while al-Subki declared it sahih according to Samhudi in Sa`adat al darayn 1:77. Ibn`Adi said in al-Kamil fi al-Du`afa" (6:2350): "He (Musa ibn Hilal) is most likely acceptable; other people have called him "unknown" and this is not true... He is one of the shuyukhs of Imam Ahmad and most of them are trustworthy." Even Albani declared him thabit al-riwaya (of established reliability) in his Irwa' (4:338). About `Ubayd Allah ibn `Umar al-`Umari:

- Dhahabi calls him saduq hasan al hadith [truthful, of fair narrations] in al-Mughni 1:348;

- Sakhawi says of him salih al-hadith [of sound narrations] in al-Tuhfa al latifa 3:366;
- Ibn Ma`in said to Darimi about him: salih thiqa [sound and reliable] in al-Kamil 4:1459.

This is one of the proof-texts adduced by the ulama of Islam to derive the obligation or recommendation of visiting the Prophet's grave and seeking him as wasila (intermediary/means). See the chapter on visiting the Prophet's grave in Nawawi's book al-Adhkar and in Qadi Iyad's book al Shifa.

Sakhawi said in al-Qawl al-badi` (p. 160):

The emphasis and encouragement on visiting his noble grave is mentioned in numerous hadiths, and it would suffice to show this if there was only the hadith whereby the truthful and God-confirmed Prophet promises that his intercession among other things becomes obligatory for whoever visits him, and the Imams are in complete agreement from the time directly after his passing until our own time that this is among the best acts of drawing near to Allah.

Ibn Hajar al-Haytami said in his commentary on Nawawi's Idah fi manasik al hajj:

Ibn Khuzayma narrated it in his Sahih but mentioned its weakness. Ibn al Kharrat and Taqi al-Subki declared it sound (sahih). Daraqutni and Tabarani also narrate it with the wording: "Whoever visits me with no other need than visiting me, it is my duty to be his intercessor on the Day of judgment" One version has: "It is Allah's duty that I be his intercessor on the Day of Judgment." Ibn al-Subki declared it sound.

The comment of the Saudi author Bin Baz whereby "The ahadith that concern the desirability of visiting the grave of the Prophet are all weak, indeed forged" (kulluha da`ifa bal mawdu`a) in the 1993 edition of Fath al Bari (3:387) is insignificant.

( This scholar ( Bin Baz) deviated from ahlus sunnah belief. More about his adventures can be read on this blog )

Imām al-Dāraqut.
nī narrated in his Sunan from Ibn ‘Umar ∗# that the Prophet  said:
“Whoever visits my grave, my intercession will be guaranteed for him.”

(Man zāra qabrī wajabat lahu shafā‘atī)

I. Sourcing (takhrīj)

Narrated from Ibn ‘Umar by al-Dāraqutnī.
in his Sunan (2:278 #194), al-T. ayālisī (2:12), al-Dūlābī in
al-Kunā wal-Asmā’ (2:64), al-Khat. īb in Talkhīs.
al-Mutashābih fīl-Rasm (1:581), Ibn al-Dubaythī in al-
Dhayl ‘alā al-Tārīkh (2:170), Ibn Abī al-Dunyā in Kitāb al-Qubūr, al-Bayhaqī in Shu‘ab al-Īmān (3:490), al-H. akīm al-Tirmidhī in Nawādir al-Us. ūl (p. 148), al-Haythamī (4:2), al-Subkī in Shifā’ al-Siqām (p. 12-14), Abū al-Shaykh, Ibn ‘Adī in al-Kāmil (6:235, 6:351), al-‘Uqaylī in al-D.u‘afā’4:170), al-Bazzār in his Musnad with a very weak chain containing ‘Abd Allāh ibn Ibrāhīm al-Ghifārī ([cf. Ibn H. ajar’s Mukhtas. ar Musnad al-Bazzār (1:481 #822)] with the wording (1) “Whoever visits my grave, my intercession shall take place for him” (h. allat lahu shafā‘atī

and Ibn H.ajar who indicated its grade of hasan in Talkhīīr (2:266) as it is strengthened by other h. adīths which both he and al-Haythamī mention ),
such as:

(2) “Whoever visits me without any avowed purpose other than my visit, it is incumbent upon meto be his intercessor on the Day of Resurrection.” Narrated by al- Tabarānī in al-Awsat and al-Kabīr with a chain containing Maslama ibn Sālim and by Ibn al-Sakan in his Sunan al-Sihah as stated by al-Shirbīnī in Mughnī al-Muhtāj (1:512).

(3) “Whoever makes pilgrimage then visits me after my death it is as if he visited me in my life.”
Narrated by al-T. abarānī in al-Kabīr (12:406), al-Dāraqut.nī (2:278), and al-Bayhaqī, Sunan, (5:246#10054-10055)all through H.afs. ibn Abī Dāwūd al-Qārī whom only Ahmad declared passable (sālih).
Mamdūh said (p. 337-340) it is more da‘īf than other weak h. adīths in this chapter

(4) “Whoever visits my grave after my death is as those who visited me in my life.” Narrated by al-Tabarānī in al-Kabīr (12:406) and al-Awsat. (1:94) with a chain containing ‘Ā’isha bint Yūnus, whose status is uncertain, and from H. āt.
ib by al-Dāraqutnī (2:278) with another chain which al-Dhahabī said
was one of the best chains in that chapter. Mamdūh said (p. 330-334) it is da‘īf but not mawdu.

(5) “Whoever makes pilgrimage and does not visit me, has been rude to me.”

Narrated by al-Dāraqutnī in his Sunan. Abū Ghudda said: “It is not forged as Ibn al-Jawzī and Ibn Taymiyya said,rather, a number of scholars considered its chain fair, and a number considered it weak.” Mamdūh.(p.344-346) considers it forged.

Al-‘Uqaylī in al-Du‘afā’ (4:170) declared the chains of Ibn ‘Umar’s narration “soft” (layyina) as did al-Dhahabī, the latter adding as did al-Bayhaqī and al-Fattanī in
Tadhkirat al-Mawduat – that they strengthened each other as none contains any liar nor forger,as stated by al-Suyūti in al-Durar al-Muntathira, al-Munāwī, and al-‘Ajlūnī in Kashf al-Khafā (2:328-329).

The narration (6) “Whoever visits me in al-Madīna anticipating reward (muh. tasiban), I shall be for him a witness and an intercessor on the Day of Resurrection.

Narrated from Anas by al-Bayhaqī,Shu‘ab(3:489-490), al-Jurjānī in Tārīkh Jurjān (p. 220, 433), Ibn Abī al-Dunyā, Ibn ‘Asākir, al-Jundī,and others,through Abū al-Muthannā Sulaymān ibn Yazīd al-Madanī al-Ka‘bī who was declared weak by
al-Dāraqutni Abū Hātim, and Ibn Hibbān while al-Tirmidhī considered his narrations fair cf. Ibn HajarLisān (7:481) and Tahdhīb (12:242). It was declared fair by al-Suyūtiin al-Jāmi‘ al-Saghīr (#8716) and fair or rather sound through its corroborators” by al-Ghumārī in al-Mudāwī (6:290) in confirmation of
al-Subkī in Shifā’ al-Siqām.

II. Grade (martaba)

The h.adīth “Whoever visits my grave, my intercession will be guaranteed for him” is a fair (h.asan) narration as concluded by Imām Abū al-H. asanāt al-Lacknawī1 and his editor ‘Abd al-Fattāh.Abū Ghuddain the latter’s notes on the Muwat.t.a’ in Muh.ammad ibn al-H. asan’s narration (chapter 49: On the Prophet’s grave) as well as Shaykh Mah.mūd Mamdūh 2 although some early scholars declared itsound (s.ah.īh.
) such as Ibn al-Sakan in al-Sunan al-Sihāh.and ‘Abd al-H.aqq al-Ishbīlī in al-Ah.kām, followed by Shaykh al-Islām al-Taqī al-Subkī in Shifā’ al-Siqām in view of the totality of the chains.3 Other h.adīth scholars who considered it authentic are Ibn H.ajar’s student the h.adīth Master al-Sakhāwī,4 the h.adīth Master of Madīna al-Samhūdī5 and Imām Ibn Hajar al-Haytamī in al-Jawhar al-Munaz zam fī Ziyārat al-Qabr al-Mukarram. Al-Ghassāni (d. 682) did not include it in his recension of al-Dāraqut.nī’s weak narrations entitled Takhrīj al-Ahādīth al-D. i‘āf min Sunan al-Dāraqut.nī.6 Some late scholars, beginning with Ibn Taymiyya, are undecided whether to grade this h.adīth weak or forged.

Imām al-Lacknawī said about this h.adīth:

There are some who declared it weak [e.g. al-Bayhaqī, Ibn Khuzayma, and al-Suyūt.
ī], and others who asserted that all the h.adīths on visitation of the Prophet  are forged, such as Ibn Taymiyya and his followers, but both positions are false for those who were given right understanding, for verification of the case dictates that the h.adīth is hasan, as Taqī al-Dīn al-Subkī has expounded in his book Shifā’

Among those who fall into the category of “Ibn Taymiyya and his followers”:
Muhammad Ibn ‘Abd al-Hādī who wrote al-Sārim al-Munkī in violent refutation of al-Subkī’s book on visitation but contradicted his own position in another book of his: he makes much ado about the reliability of ‘Abd Allāh ibn ‘Umar al-‘Umarī in al-Sārim al-Munkī, but relies upon him in another book, al-Tanqīh.!8 Shaykh Mah.mūd Mamdūh refuted his weakening of this h.adīth in great detail 9 and
stated that al-S. ārim al-Munkī is at the root of all subsequent generalizations in weakening the h.adīths that concern the desirability of visitation.10

The late ‘Abd al-‘Azīz ibn Baz who reiterated Ibn Taymiyya’s imprudent verdict: “The h.adīths that concern the visitation of the grave of the Prophet  are all weak, indeed forged”;11

The late Nāsir al-Albānī,12 who claimed that the visit to the Prophet  ranks among the innovations 13 although himself the Innovator of our time.

A Nās ir al-Jadya‘, who in 1993 obtained his Ph.D. with First Honors from the University of Muhammad ibn Sa‘ūd after writing a 600-page book entitled al-Tabarruk in which he perpetuates the same aberrant claim.14

Imām al-Sakhāwī said:

The emphasis and encouragement on visiting his noble grave is mentioned in numerous h.adīths, and it would suffice to show this if there was only the h.adīth whereby the truthful and God-confirmed Prophet promises that his intercession among other things becomes guaranteed for whoever visits him, and the Imāms are in complete agreement from the time directly after his passing until our own
time that this [i.e. visiting him] is among the best acts of drawing near to Allāh.15

1 In Zafar al-Amānī (p. 422) and al-Ajwibat al-Fād.
ila (p. 155).

2 In his Raf‘ al-Mināra (p. 280 and p. 318).

3 As related by Ibn H. ajar in Talkhīs al-H. abīr (2:267). Cf. al-Shawkānī in Nayl al-Awtar (5:95) and al-Sindī in hisnotes on Ibn Mājah.

4 In al-Qawl al-Badī‘ (p. 160).

5In Sa‘ādat al-Darayn (1:77).

6Published at Ryad: Dār ‘Alam al-Kutub, 1991.

7 Al-Lacknawī, Zafar al-Amānī (p. 422).

8Ibn ‘Abd al-Hādī, Tanqīh. (1:122) cf. Mamdūh Raf‘ al-Mināra (p. 12).

9In Raf‘ al-Mināra (p 280-318)

10 In Raf‘ al-Mināra (p. 9).

11 In his annotations on Ibn H. ajar’s Fath. al-Bārī (1989 ed. 3:387), echoing the exact words used by Ibn Taymiyya in his Minhāj (1986 ed. 2:441) and Fatāwā (27:119).

12 In his Irwa’ al-Ghalīl (4:337-338) in which he imitated Ibn ‘Abd al-Hādī. 13In Talkhīs Ah kām al-Janā'iz (p. 110) and elsewhere in his writings. 14Nasir al-Jadya’, al-T. abarruk (p. 322). Note that all these books are presently available in print, but not Shifā’ al Siqām!

15 Al-Sakhāwī, al-Qawl al-Badī‘ (p. 160). He contradicts himself in al-Maqās.
id al-H. asana (p. 413) where he adopts al-Dhahabī’s opinion that “the chains of the h. adīth of visitation are all ‘soft’ (layyina) but strengthen each
other because none of them contains any liar.”

There is no contest among the jurists of the Four Schools as to the probative force of the narration of Ibn ‘Umar, as it is adduced time and again by the jurists to support the strong desirability of visiting the Prophet in Madīna, especially among H anbalī sources early and late: al-Mardāwī, Ibn Hubayra, and others stated that the entirety of the early and late authorities in the Hanbalī Madhhab stipulate the
desirability (istih.bāb) of visiting the grave of the Prophet  in Madīna, most especially after Hajj,and/or travelling to do so.16 Ibn Muflih., al-Mardāwī, and Mar‘ī ibn Yūsuf in Ghāyat al-Muntahā stated the Sunnī character of visiting the graves of the Muslims and the permissibility (ibāh.a) of travelling to do
so. Mar‘ī reiterates this ruling in his unpublished monograph on the ethics of graves and visitation, Shifā’ al-Sudūr fī Ziyārat al-Mashāhid wal-Qubūr.17

There are many additional sound texts illustrating the visit to the Prophet , among them that of the Companion Bilāl ibn Rabāh al-Habashī all the way from Damascus with the expressed intention of visiting the Prophet to greet him and, upon arrival, his rubbing his face against the Prophetic grave in tears before proceeding to raise the adhān upon the request of the two grandsons of the Prophet
upon them peace.18 See also the Companions’ practice of seeking the Prophet  as a means for their needs by visiting his grave, such as Bilāl ibn al-H. ārith al-Muzanī, Abū Ayyūb al-Ans.āri, ‘Ā’isha, and Fātima 19 And Allāh knows best.

16 Ibn Qudāma, al-Mughnī (3:117, 3:297, 5:465), al-Muqni‘ (1:466), al-Kāfī (1:619); Ibn Muflih. , al-Mubdi‘ fī Sharh al-Muqni‘ (3:259); al-Buhūtī, Kashshāf al-Qinā‘ (2:514-515; 5:36), al-Rawd. al-Murba‘ (1:522); Ibn Dawyān Manār al-Sabīl (1:256); Shams al-Dīn ibn Muflih. , Furū‘ (3:523); al-H. ajjāwī, Iqnā‘ (1:395); ‘Abd al-Rah.mān al-Ba‘lī, Kashf al-Mukhaddarāt (p. 193); Mar‘ī, Ghāyat al-Muntahā (1:418), Dalīl al-T. alīb (p. 88); Ah.mad al-Ba‘lī,al-Rawd. al-Nadī (p. 190); Bahā’ al-Dīn al-Maqdisī (p. 209); Ibn al-Najjār, Muntahā al-Irādāt (1:286); Ibn al-
Jawzī, al-Madhhab al-Ah. mad (p. 68); Shams al-Dīn Ibn Qudāma, al-Sharh. al-Kabīr (3:494); al-Kawladhānī,Hidāya (p. 105); Ibn Hubayra, Ifs. āh.
(1:297), al-Mardāwī, Ins. āf (4:53).

17 Z.āhiriyya ms. cf. Ibn Muflih. , Mubdi‘ (2:107), Mar‘ī, Ghāya (1:258), al-Mardāwī, Ins. āf (2:317).

18Narrated by Ibn ‘Asākir (7:137) with a good chain (sanad jayyid) as stated by al-Shawkānī in Nayl al-Awtar
(5:180), at the conclusion of Kitāb al-Manāsik.

19All as cited in the sections on Tawassul and Visitation in the Encyclopedia of Islamic Doctrine.

Saturday, January 12, 2008


The worst biddah which the (Pseudo) salafis (also caleld WAHABIS) Propogate is the division of Tawheed into Three parts.

Two post were made on this topic in 2007 . Please read those for a better understanding and refuting Wahabis.

Here is part 3 on that topic. Remember that the Christians made up the concept of TRINITY and Ibn TAYMIAH was influenced by this thought and divided Tawheed also into 3 parts.

Assessment of the Division of Tawhid
into Uluhiyya and Rububiyya

`Allama Abu Mahasin Jamaluddin Yusuf
bin Ahmad al-Dijwi al-Maliki al-Azhari

We have received many letters asking for the definition of tawhid al-uluhiyya (Oneness ofAllah in Divinity) and tawhid al-rububiyya (Oneness of Allah in Lordship) and also inregards [the principle according] to which they were arranged, who it was that differentiated between them and the proof of its validity or invalidity.
Our reply, with the assistance of Allah, is as follows


The person who viewed such was Ibn Taymiyya, who invented this, saying:
“Indeed the Messengers were not sent save for the purpose of [teaching] tawhid aluluhiyya which means to single out Allah (alone) for worship; as for [the other,] tawhid alrububiyya which is to believe that Allah is the Lord of all existence and disposer of theiraffairs, none has disagreed with this, Muslim or polytheist, the proof for which is the Almighty’s statement

“And if you were to ask them who fashioned the heavens and
the earth they would reply Allah” (Qur’an 39:38)”

They also say:

“Those who seek means (wasila) through the Prophets and pious, intercede through
them and call upon them during hardships are worshipping them. (The Arabs of
jahailiyyah) rejected the belief of the rububiyya of statues, Angels and the Messiah but they did not become disbelievers because of disbelieving in the rububiyya of these statues and whatever is alongside it, rather by abandoning tawhid al-uluhiyya by worshipping them and this is the same for those who perpetually visit graves, seek means through the pious, call upon them, and seek their assistance, seeking from them that which Allah has not given them the ability to do.”


Muhammad bin `Abdul Wahhab said:

“Indeed their disbelief is more distasteful than the disbelief of worshipping statues.”
If need be I could have presented his entire sorrowful and valiant discourse, but this is a summary of their views just for clarification and it contains a number of claims which we shall present again in brief and discuss them using both logic and text.

Their view that tawhid divides into uluhiyya and rububiyya was unheard of before Ibn
Taymiyya and is unimaginable as you shall soon learn. The Messenger of Allah _ did not say to anyone who accepted Islam ‘there are two tawhids, and unless you single out Allah in uluhiyya you are not a Muslim’ and neither did he demonstrate this in a single discourse and this was not heard from a single member of the salaf who they [the followers of Ibn Taymiyya and Ibn `Abdul Wahhab] boast of following in everything.

This division makes no sense for the true God is the true Lord and the false god is the false lord. None is deserving of worship or being assumed as divine except one who is the Lord. This division makes no sense also because we do not worship except those who we believe to be a lord that benefits and harms and thus worship is but a result of lordship, as the Almighty says:

“The Lord of the heavens and the earth and what is between them, so
worship Him and be patient in His worship. Do you know of any equal to
Him?” (Qur’an19:65).

Therefore uluhiyya is a consequence of rububiyya; for if we do not believe he is a lord who benefits and harms, then worship to him is illogical, as the Almighty says (about Sheba and her people):

“That they do not prostrate to Allah, Who brings forth what is hidden in
the heavens and the earth” (Qur’an 27:25),

indicating that prostration is unbefitting for any, other than those who possess ability and power, and it would bear no implication prostrating to any other. This is what is understood and is proven from the Qur’an and Sunnah. As for the Qur’an it states

“And (a prophet) will not instruct you to take the Angels and Prophets
as lords.” (Qur’an 3:80)

which clarifies the great number of lords they possessed; despite the clarity of the Qur’an that they made the Angels lords, Ibn Taymiyya and Muhammad bin Abdil Wahhab said they are monotheists in rububiyya since they have only one lord but they commit shirk in tawhid al-uluhiyya’! Yusuf  said to his two companions in prison while inviting them to tawhid.

“Are many lords better or Allah, the One, the Irresistible?”
(Qur’an 12:39)

And Allah the Almighty says:

“They disbelieve in the Most Merciful; say (O Muhammad):
‘He is my Lord’” (Qur’an 13:30),

for they did not make him lord. Another example is as Allah saysof the statement of a

“But he is Allah, my Lord” (Qur’an 18:38),
in response to one who denounced the Almighty’s rububiyya. Also consider their discourse on the Day of Rising:

“By Allah! Indeed we were in clear error when we made you equals to
the Lord of all existence.” (Qur’an 26:97-98),

and observe the Almighty’s statement:

“When it is said to them ‘Prostrate before the Most Merciful!’ they reply
‘What is the Most Merciful, should we prostrate before whom you
instruct us to?’” (Qur’an 25:60).

Do you view the one to say this, a monotheist?! Now consider the Almighty’s statement:

“And they argue about [the divinity of] Allah” (Qur’an 13:13),

as in many other verses which we shall not detail; but the point is that these kuffar did not possess tawhid al-rububiyya as Ibn Taymiyya claimed; and Yusuf  was calling to nothing

other than tawhid al-rububiyya because in reality there is no such thing as tawhid al-rububiyya
and tawhid al-uluhiyya according to Yusuf  so are they more acquainted with tawhid than
him and will they say he has erred in his interpretation of ‘lords’ which should have been ‘gods’

In addition, Allah has said when he took the covenant from all people:

“Am I not your Lord?” and they replied ‘Yes’” (Qur’an 7:172),

so if acceptance of tawhid al-rububiyya was insufficient and accepted by the polytheists, as Ibn Taymiyya said, then taking this covenant would be unnecessary and they would not have to say on the Day of Rising.

“Indeed we were unaware of this” (Qur’an 7:172);

it would be necessary for Allah to change the conditions of the covenant to what they
recognise and include uluhiyya since rububiyya is insufficient according to them, and all those other things which we would have to expand upon, which are not hidden from you. Anyway, tawhid al-rububiyya was sufficient for them and they were not required to accept tawhid al-uluhiyya also.

Also the Almighty’s statement: “He is the God in the Sky and the God on earth,”
shows He is the God on earth even if he is not worshipped as shall be the case at the end of time so.If it is said this means he is worshipped in the sense that he is alone in deserving worship, then we reply there is no difference in this case between god and lord for the one deserving of worship is the Lord and no other. However the discussion of Pharaoh with Musa was regarding rububiyya

“I am your lord, most high.” (Qur’an 79:24),
and then he said:

“If you take a God besides me I shall imprison you.” (Qur’an 26:29),

and nobody claims these are of the same meaning.

As for the Sunnah, there is the case of the two Angels asking the dead of the identity of one’s lord and not of one’s god because there is no distinction between lord and god because they do not follow Ibn Taymiyya and nor do they speak in a chaotic way; in the view of these people it would be necessary to ask Who is your god?’ not ‘Who is your lord?’!!

Regarding the statement,

“And if you were to ask them who fashioned the heavens and the earth
they would reply Allah” (Qur’an 39:38),

this is what they say with their tongues but do not believe in their hearts; they were forced to say this for the decisive proofs that were presented before them.
Perhaps they spoke of something that wouldn’t even come near to settling in their hearts or reaching their souls since they accompanied this statement with phrases showing they were lying because they believed the idols could benefit and harm.

Also they became completely ignorant of Allah and attributed even the smallest of matters to other than him for instance when the people of Hud said to him.

“We say nought except that our Gods have afflicted you [with evil]”
(Qur’an 11:54),

so how can Ibn Taymiyya say that they believe their gods neither harm nor benefit?
Observe the claim of these people about their cattle

This is for Allah’ they claim ‘And this is for our associates’; whatever is
for Allah reaches their associates and whatever is for their associates
does not reach Allah” (Qur’an 6:136),

they present their associates with even the smallest and most insignificant of things. And Allah says, explaining their belief in statues:

“[On the Day of Judgement it would be said to them] We do not see with
you those intercessors you claimed to be associates” (Qur’an 6:94),

showing they believed them to be their associates. Also Abu Sufyan said at Uhud ‘Superior is Hubal’ and the Messenger of Allah  replied “Allah is the most High and Prominent”.So consider this and tell me what do you consider of the tawhid that Ibn Taymiyya was ascribing to them, saying “in this they are the same as the Muslims but they only differ in tawhid aluluhiyya?!”This is also proven by the statement of Allah
“Do not curse those whom they call on besides Allah lest they curse Allah out of enmity with no knowledge”, do you think they believed in tawhid after seeing this?

The followers of Ibn Taymiyya after all this say ‘they are monotheists in regards tawhid alrububiyya and the Messengers did not fight them but for the purpose of tawhid al-uluhiyya, and they disbelieved not except by abandoning this’!! I do not know the connotations of such restrictions, considering they denied the Messengers, refuted what was sent to them,made Halal the Haram, rejected life after death and the Afterlife, claimed that Allah has a wife and a son and the Angles are the daughters of Allah:

“Know that they from amongst their inventions claim ‘Allah has bore a
child’ and they are liars” (Qur’an 37:151-152),
and for all these reasons the Messengers did not fight them according to these people but fought them for the absence of tawhid al-uluhiyya and they are like the Muslims in regards to tawhid al-rububiyya!! Or the Muslims are greater disbelievers in the view of Muhammad bin Abdul Wahhab!

We do not agree with any of this, yet we say:

Upon the supposition there is a distinction between tawhid al-rububiyya and tawhid aluluhiyya as is claimed, tawassul (seeking means to Allah) does not negate tawhid aluluhiyya because it is not worship, neither linguistically, nor legally,
nor customarily and none have said that to call upon and seek means through the pious is worship.

The Messenger of Allah  has not informed us of this and if it was worship or similar to it, it would not be permissible to do this for both the live and the dead.

If one insists that Allah is closer to us than our jugular vein so we need no intermediation we reply ‘you have learnt a thing but are ignorant of a thing’ for if your view is such it would be necessary for you to leave all means and intermediates in everything since this world is built on the wisdom that there are means and accessories to everything. It would be necessary for him to deny intercession on the Day of Rising and that `Umar erred when he said:

We seek means to you through the cousin of your Prophet, `Abbas.”
(Sahih Bukhari)

They would have to close all doors to means and intermediates which is in opposition to the divine Sunnah (way).It is also necessary they fall under the same rule they place the Muslims under since it is impossible they leave all means and intermediates.

The difference between the live and dead in this context has no implication for the one seeking means does not ask of anything from the dead by principle but seeks from Allah alone throughthe means of the dead or the repute of the dead person in Allah’s eyes or His love for him or the like of this, is there any ascription of divinity to the dead in this, or is this worship? These people base their view on unverified conjecture, after all Muslims have permitted tawassul, rather have considered it to be good.

Look into the books of the four madhhabs and even the books of the Hanbalis in the adab (manners) of the visitation of the Prophet  and you’d find that they consider tawassul through him recommended, this remained as consensus until Ibn Taymiyya came and opposed the consensus and others persisted in the instability of this dissension, opposing both intellect and text.


QURAN 67:16

Interpreting Allah's Words "He Who is in the Heaven"
(man fi al-sama')

Allah's saying: "Have you taken security from Him Who is in the Heaven that He will not cause the earth to swallow you" (67:16) indicates that everything elevated is called "Heaven." The commentaries say that Allah said this to the idolaters in response to their claim that the gods on earth were the idols and that Allah the Exalted owned only the heavens. It means: Have you taken security from Him Who is on high with the highness of loftiness and sublimity, in the same way as it is said: "the sultan is higher than the emir," even though they may both sit on one and the same dais.

Similarly with reference to His saying: "He is the Omnipotent over His slaves" (6:18, 6:61): pre-eminence or the quality of aboveness here signifies a pre-eminence of importance and rank. Pharaoh described himself as pre-eminent over the Banu Isra'il by saying: "Verily we are omnipotent over you." It is understood that his meaning here does not consist in a geographic location above them. Al-Tabari said in his Tafsir: "Allah made Himself exalted over the heaven with the exaltation (`uluw) of sovereignty and power, not that of displacement and movement." [1]

Another meaning for 67:16 is mentioned in Zamakhshari's Kashshaf. It is: "Have you taken security from Him whose sovereignty is in the Heaven?" (a'amintum man malakutihi fi al-sama'). When "whose sovereignty" (malakutihi) is omitted the pronoun "Him" (man) remains instead. There are many instances of this turn of speech in the Qur'an: "And ask the town" (was'al al-qaryat), that is: "And ask the people of the town"; "And your Lord came" (wa ja'a rabbuka), that is: "And your Lord's order came" (wa ja'a amru rabbika).

Concerning the latter verse Imam Ahmad said: "It means His command." Bayhaqi said about this saying in his book Manaqib al-Imam Ahmad: "Its chain of transmission is impeccable." It is related verbatim in Ibn Kathir who adds: "Imam Ahmad's words signify negation of likening Allah to creation." [2]

We do not think that Ibn Kathir would countenance the argument of some "Salafis" of today who say that al-Bayhaqi may have misunderstood the wording of the original text and misphrased it! Nor do we accept such baseless hypotheses. We believe that Imam Ahmad said those words as they came to us with a faultless chain of transmission, whether or not they meet the expectations of "Salafis" towards Imam Ahmad. Ibn Hazm in al-Fasl fi al-milal confirms that Imam Ahmad interpreted Allah's "coming" as His command. [3] Al-Khallal himself, in his book Al-Sunna, reports that Imam Ahmad interpreted Sura al-Baqara figuratively to mean "Allah's reward" in the hadith of Muslim: "On the Day of the Rising, al-Baqara and Al `Imran will come..." Similarly Bayhaqi relates in his al-Asma' wa al-Sifat that Imam Bukhari interpreted Allah's "laughter" to mean his mercy. Al-Khattabi confirmed it. [4]

Allah said: "Have ye taken security from Him Who is in the heaven that He will not cause the earth to swallow you when lo! it is convulsed? Or have ye taken security from Him Who is in the heaven that He will not let loose on you a hurricane?" (67:16f.); and in Surat al-An`am: "Say: He is able to send punishment upon you from above you or from beneath your feet" (6:65). In the former verses He therefore places first what He places last in the latter verse (i.e. a sign from beneath).

Al-Sufuri says: His answer to what He put in first position in Sura 67 is "He it is Who hath made the earth subservient unto you" (67:15) and corresponds to the fact that in the very next verse (67:16) He is in fact reiterating the threat of earthly instability. As for what comes in first position in "al-An`am" ("punishment upon you from above" 6:65), His answer: "He is the Omnipotent over His slaves" (6:61) corresponds to the placing of what lies in the above direction in first position in verse 6:65 for the sake of verisimilitude. [5]

Nawawi in his commentary on Muslim agreed with Qadi `Iyad that the words "in the heaven" in the verse "Have you security from Him Who is in the heaven" is interpreted figuratively. Fakhr al-Din Razi said in his Tafsir (3:69): "It is the anthropomorphists who used the verse "Have you security from Him Who is in the heaven" to claim that Allah Himself is in the sky." The Qur'anic commentator Abu Hayyan al-Andalusi said the same thing in his Bahr al-muhit (8:302) and Nahr al-madd (2:1131-1132) with particular reference to Ibn Taymiyya. [6]

Concerning the verse: "He is Allah in the heavens and in the earth. He knoweth both your secret and your utterance, and He knoweth what you earn" (6:3) it is established that everything that is in heaven and on earth belongs to Him. He said: "Say: to whom belongs what is in the heavens and in the earth? Say: to Allah." The word "what" (ma) here indicates rational beings as well as others, as in His saying: "And the heaven and Him (ma) who built it, and the earth and Him (ma) who spread it..." (91:5-6). If Allah was literally in the heavens then He would possess Himself and this is absurd.

Moreover, taking His saying: "in the heavens" in verse 6:3 to signify "inside one particular heaven" is not permissible as it contradicts the outward sense of the verse. As for taking it to mean "inside the heavens put together," it would be tantamount to saying that what is contained of Him in a given heaven is other than what is contained in the remaining heavens, and would necessitate from Him the qualities of complexity and combination of parts, and this is absurd. It is therefore established that it is impossible to venture upon the outward meaning of this verse. It becomes obligatory to understand it figuratively. This figurative interpretation has several aspects.

1- It means the disposal-and-direction (tadbir) of the heavens, as when it is said: "So-and-so is in such-and-such a matter," that is, he is engaged in disposing and directing it.

2- The words "He is Allah" are a complete statement. Then He continues with another statement: "In the heavens and in the earth, He knoweth both your secret and your utterance." That is: He knows the secret of the angels and their utterance, and He likewise knows the state of whoever is in the earth.

3- There is a precedence (taqdim) and a post-position (ta'khir) in the verse. The meaning implied thereby is: "And He is Allah, He knows in the heavens and in the earth your secret and your utterance."

4- Imam al-Qurtubi (d. 671) said the following in his commentary on verse 67:16 ("Have ye taken security from Him Who is in the heaven..."):

This may mean: "Do you feel secure that He Who is the Creator of whomever is in the heavens will not make the earth swallow you, as He did Korah?" The more exacting hold that "in the heavens" signifies: "Do you feel secure from Him who is over the heavens," just as Allah says: "Journey in the earth" (9:2) meaning over it; not over it by way of physical contact or spatialization, but by way of omnipotent power and control. Another position is that it means: "Do you feel secure from Him Who holds sway over (`ala) the heavens," i.e. just as it is said: "So-and-so is over Iraq and the Hijaz," meaning that he is the governor and commander of them. The hadiths on this subject are numerous, rigorously authenticated (sahih), and widely known, and indicate the exaltedness of Allah, being undeniable by anyone save an atheist or obstinate ignoramus. Their meaning is to dignify Allah and exalt Him above what is base and low, to characterize Him by exaltedness and grandeur, not by being in places, particular directions, or within limits, for these are the qualities of physical bodies. The hands are only raised skyward when one supplicates because the sky is from whence divine revelation descends and rains fall, the place of purity and the wellspring of the purified ones of the angels, and that the works of servants are raised to it and over it is the Throne and His Paradise, just as Allah has made the Ka`ba the direction of supplication and prayer. He created all places and has no need of them. He was without space or time in His beginningless eternality before creating space and time, and is now as He ever has been. [7]

5- Ibn Hajar says in the commentary on the chapter devoted to `uluw (#23) in the book of tawhid which is the last book of Sahih al-Bukhari:

Bayhaqi mentioned Abu Bakr al-Dab`i's saying that the Arabs use "in" (fi) in place of "over," as in Allah's saying: "Roam over (fi) the earth" and "I shall crucify you over (fi) the trunks of the palm-trees." Likewise, Dab`i says, "In the heaven" means "Over the Throne above the heaven, as stated in the sound reports... And by including the hadith of Ibn `Abbas containing the words: "Lord of the mighty Throne" into this chapter, Bukhari warned those that might predicate spatial elevation to Allah (`uluw fawqi) that both the direction in which the heaven is believed to be and that in which the Throne is believed to be are created, lorded over, and brought into existence by Allah Who existed before all that and before everything else. Thus these places were created, and his existence, being eternal without beginning, precludes reference to him as being bounded by them. And Allah knows best. [8]


[1] Tafsir Ibn Jarir 1:192.
[2] Ibn Kathir's al-Bidaya wa al-nihaya 10:327.
[3] Ibn Hazm, al-Fasl fi al-milal 2:173.
[4] Bayhaqi, al-Asma' wa al-Sifat p. 298 and 470. For al-Khattabi see the reference to Ibn Hajar in the discussion of Allah's "laughter" further down.
[5]al-Sufuri, Nuzhat al-majalis p. 7.
[6] Abu Hayyan al-Andalusi, Tafsir al-bahr al-muhit (8:302) and al-Nahr al-madd (2:1131-1132).
[7] Al-Qurtubi, al-Jami` li ahkam al-qur'an (18:216), as cited in The Reliance of the Traveller, p. 860-861.
[8] Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Bari, Tawhid ch. 23 last paragraph.

And Don't forget to read another article on this blog ( posted in 2007) with the titile"Ibn Taymiah descending down the mimbar"

Friday, January 4, 2008


“Naturally, the expression "Ahl al-Sunnah" was unknown in the early days of Islam.”
The expression "Ahl al-Sunna" is reported from Ibn `Abbas and Ibn `Umar by al-Lalika'i in Sharh Usul I`tiqad Ahl al-Sunna; Muslim narrates it from Muhammad ibn Sirin in the Muqaddima to his Sahih; and al-Darimi in his Musnad from al-Hasan al-Basri. This is not to mention the Mujtahid Imams and those of the generation-layer immediately preceding them.

I could look up al-Suyuti's compilation Miftah al-Janna fi al-Ihtijaj bis- Sunna and the late Dr. `Abd al-Khaliq Abd al-Ghani's Hujjiyyat al-Sunna for more reports, but this is probably enough to put to rest the false assumption that the expression was unknown in the early days of Islam

""Hold on to my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the Rightly Guided Caliphs after me. Hold on to it firmly.

Reported by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal Abu Dawud, at-Tirmidhi who said it is a good and sound hadith, and Ibn Majah)

Hold fast to my Sunnah and the Sunnah of the Rightly Guided Caliphs.

(Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali (may Allah be pleased with them).

Clamp your molars upon it, avoid new novelties, for every novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is misguidance.

Sahih Hadith recorded in (no. 4590), Sunan al-Tirmidhi (5/43, no. 2676), Sunan Ibn Majah (1/15-6, no. 42), Sunan al-Darimi (no. 96), Ibn Abi Aasim in al-Sunnah (no. 54), Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal in his Musnad (4/126), al-Hakim in al-Mustadrak (1/95-6) and Ibn Hibban in his Sahih (1/166, no. 5).

Allah will never let my Ummah agree upon misguidance, and the hand of Allah is over the group (Jama'ah), so follow the great mass of believers (Sawad ul-'Azam), and whoever dissents from them departs to hell.

A narration authenticated and reported by al-Hakim (1/116), and al-Dhahabi agreed with him. A very similar report has been recorded by al-Tirmidhi (4/2167). Imam al-Munawi said in commentary to Tirmidhi's Hadith: (Allah's hand is over the Jama'ah) meaning his protection and preservation of them, signifying that the collectivity of the people of Islam are in Allah's fold, so be also in Allah's shelter, in the midst of them, and do not separate yourselves from them. (And whoever descents from them departs to hell) meaning that whoever diverges from the overwhelming majority concerning what is lawful or unlawful and on which the Community does not differ has slipped off the path of guidance and this will lead him to hell. (see Imam al-Azizi's: al-Siraj al-Munir Sharh al-Jami us-Saghir, 3/449, cf. Reliance of the Traveller, p. 25).

. Fa`tasimu bi hablillahi jami`an wa la tafarraqu

"Hold fast to the rope of Allah, all of you, and do not split into factions" (3:103).

2. Wa la tafarraqu illa min ba`di ma ja'ahum al-`ilmu baghyan

"And they were not divided until after the knowledge came unto them, through rivalry among themselves" (42:14).

3. Ya ayyuha al-ladhina amanu ati`ullaha wa ati`u al-rasula
wa uli al-amri minkum

"O you who believe, obey Allah and obey the Prophet and those of authority among you" (4:59).

4. Wa man yushaqiq al-rasula min ba`di ma tabayyana lahu al-huda wa yattabi` ghayra sabil al-mu'minin nuwallihi ma tawalla wa nuslihi jahannama wa sa'at masira

"Whoever contraverts the Messenger after guidance has become clear to him and follows other than the believers' way, We shall give him over to what he has turned to and expose him unto hell, and how evil an outcome!" (4:115).

5. Wa asbir nafsaka ma` al-ladhina yad`una rabbahum bi al-ghadati wa al-`ashiyyi yuriduna wajhah wa la ta`du `aynaka `anhum turidu zinat al-hayat al-dunya wa la tuti` man aghfalna qalbahu `an dhikrina wa ittaba`a hawahu wa kana amruhu furutan

"Restrain thyself along with those who call upon their Lord at morning and evening, seeking his pleasure; and let not thine eyes overlook them, desiring the pomp of this worldly life; and obey not him whose heart We have made heedless of Our remembrance, who followeth his own lust and whose case has gone beyond all bounds." (18:28)

6. Ati`u Allaha wa ati`u al-rasula wa uli al-amri minkum...

"Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those who are in charge of affairs among you. Should you happen to dispute over something, then refer it to Allah and to the Messenger." (4:58-59)

7. Alaykum bi al-jama`a fa innallaha la yajma`u ummata Muhammadin `ala dalala

"You have to follow the Congregation for verily Allah will not make the largest group of Muhammad's Community agree.
Ibn Abi Shayba relates it with a sound chain.

8a. La yajma`ullahu ummata Muhammadin `ala dalala

"Verily Allah will not make Muhammad's Community agree on error
al-Hakim narrated it in the Mustadrak (1:116, 177) with a sound (sahih) chain.

8b Inna Allaha la yajma`u ummati -- aw qala: ummata Muhammadin --`ala dalalatin wa yadullahi ma` al-jama`a

"Verily Allah will not make my Community -- or Muhammad's Community -- agree on error, and Allah's hand is with the largest Congregation." Tirmidhi said: "And the meaning of "jama`a" according to the people of knowledge is: the people of jurisprudence, learning, and hadith

]Tirmidhi (gharib) #2256, Cairo ed. `Aridat al-ahwadhi (11:9).
9. Man arada minkum bi habuhat al-jannati fal yulzim al-jama`at

"Whoever among you wants to be in the middle of Paradise, let him cling to the Congregation
Tirmidhi related it and said it is sound (sahih).

10. Inna al-shaytana dhaybun ka dhayb al-ghanam ya'khudh al-shat al-qasiya wal-najiya fa iyyakum wal-shu`aab wa `alaykum bil-jama`ati wal-`aammati wal-masjid

"Shaytan is a wolf like the wolf that preys on sheep, taking the isolated and the stray among them; therefore, avoid factionalism and keep to the Congregation and the collective and the masjid
Ahmad relates it through Mu`adh and through Abu Dharr, the two chains being respectively fair [hasan] and sound [sahih] according to Haythami in Majma` al-zawa'id

11. Inna ummati la tajtami`u `ala dalalatin fa idha ra'aytum al-ikhtilaf fa `alaykum bi al- sawad al-a`zam.

"My Community shall never agree upon misguidance, therefore, if you see divergences, you must follow the greater mass or larger group
Ibn Majah (2:1303 #3950) from Anas with a weak chain. Ahmad narrates it mawquf through three sound chains to Abu Umama al-Bahili and Ibn Abi Awfa. However, it is marfu` to the Prophet from Abu Umama by Ibn Abi Shayba in his Musannaf as well as Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, the latter two's narration stating that Abu Umama heard this from the Prophet up to seven times. Bayhaqi in al-Madkhal narrates something similar from Ibn `Abbas.

11a Lan tajtami`a ummati `ala dalalatin fa `alaykum bi al-jama`ati fa inna yadullahi `ala al-jama`a.

"My Community shall not agree upon misguidance. Therefore, you must stay with the Congregation, and Allah's hand is over the Congregation.

Tabarani narrated it with two chains from Ibn `Umar, one of which is sound (sahih). See Haythami, Majma` al-zawa'id, chapter on the obligation to stay with the Congregation.

12. Innallaha qad ajara ummati min an tajtami`a `ala dalala

"Verily Allah has protected my Community from agreeing upon error

Ibn Abi `Asim narrated it in the Sunna

13. Kana al-nasu yas'aluna Rasulallahi `an al-khayr wa kuntu as'aluhu `an al-sharr...qultu ya rasulallahi sifhum lana [ayy al-du`at `ala abwabi jahannam] qala hum min jildatina wa yatakallamuna bi alsinatina qultu fa ma ta'murni in adrakani dhalik al-yawm? qala tulzim jama`at al-muslimin wa imamahum

"People used to ask the Prophet about the good and I used to ask him about the evil... I said: O Messenger of Allah, describe them to us [the callers at the door of the fire]. He said: They are of our complexion and they speak our very language. I said: What do you order me to do if that day reaches me? He said: You must keep to the Congregation of Muslims and to their leader.
Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Hudhayfa ibn al-Yaman.

14 Yadu Allah `ala al-jama`a

"Allah's hand is over the group
Tirmidhi (hasan).

-Munawi said: "Allah's hand is over the group means His protection and preservation for them, signifying that the collectivity of the people of Islam are in Allah's fold, so be also in Allah's shelter, in the midst of them, and do not separate yourselves from them. Whoever diverges from the overwhelming majority concerning what is lawful and unlawful and on which the Community does not differ has slipped off the path of guidance and this will lead him to hell.

al-Munawi, Sharh al-Jami` al-saghir 3:449.
14a. Yadu Allah `ala al-jama`at wa man shadhdha shadhdha ila al-nar.

"Allah's hand is over the group, and whoever dissents from them departs to hell
Tirmidhi (gharib) from Ibn `Umar, al-Hakim both from Ibn `Umar and Ibn `Abbas, and Ibn Jarir from Ibn `Umar.

14b. Yadu Allah `ala al-jama`a, ittabi`u al-sawad al-a`zam fa innahu man shadhdha shadhdha ila al-nar.

"Allah's hand is over the group, follow the largest mass, for verily whoever dissents from them departs to hell
Narrated by al-Hakim and al-Tabari from Ibn `Abbas, and al-Lalika'i in al-Sunna and al-Hakim also narrated it from Ibn `Umar.

14c Man faraqa al-jama`ata shibran mata maytatan Jahiliyya.

"Whoever leaves the Community or separates himself from it by the length of a span, dies the death of the Jahiliyya (period of ignorance prior to Islam)";
Muslim (Imara #55) through Ibn `Abbas. Muslim relates it with slight variations through three more chains. Ibn Abi Shayba also relates it in his Musannaf

15. Abu Ghalib said that during the crisis with the Khawarij in Damascus he saw Abu Umama one day and he was crying. He asked him what made him cry and he replied: "They followed our religion," then he mentioned what was going to happen to them tomorrow. Abu Ghalib said: "Are you saying this according to your opinion or from something you heard the Prophet say?" Abu Umama said: "What I just told you I did not hear from the Prophet only once, or twice, or three times, but more than seven times. Did you not read this verse in Al `Imran: The day faces will be white and faces will be dark..."? (3:106) to the end of the verse. Then he said: I heard the Prophet say: "The Jews separated into 71 sects, 70 of which are in the fire; the Christians into 72 sects, 71 of which are in the fire; and this Community will separate into 73 sects, all of them are in the fire except one which will enter Paradise." We said: "Describe it for us." He said: "The Sawad al-a`zam."

Haythami said in Majma` al-zawa'id: Tabarani narrated it in al-Mu`jam al-kabir and al-Awsat, and its narrators are trustworthy (thiqat).

16. Sataftariqu ummati `ala thalathat wa sab`ina firqatin kulluhum fil nari ila millatin wahidat, qalu man hiya ya rasulallah, qala ma ana `alayhi wa as-habi

"My Community will split into seventy-three sects. All of them will be in the fire except one group. They asked: Who are they, O Messenger of Allah? He said: Those that follow my way and that of my companions

Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud, and al-Darimi related it.